Publishing in Invertebrate Biology

Invertebrate Biology (IB) invites papers on all aspects of invertebrate biology-morphology and ultrastructure; genetics, phylogenetics, and evolution; physiology and ecology; neurobiology, behavior, and biomechanics; reproduction and development; cell and molecular biology-and on all types of invertebrates: protozoan and metazoan, aquatic and terrestrial, free-living and symbiotic. Manuscripts submitted should present original research focused on understanding the biology of invertebrate organisms. Taxonomic descriptions may be a component, though secondary, of papers submitted to IB. Review articles are welcomed, but please consult the Editor-in-Chief before submitting. All contributions undergo a thorough process of peer-review.

Manuscript submission and format

Manuscripts should be submitted electronically through Manuscript Central at, and initial correspondence directed to the Editor-in-Chief. For matters of style not covered here, refer to recent issues of IB or the CBE Manual Scientific Style and Format.

Manuscript text files should be typed double spaced, with margins at least 2.5 cm. Manuscripts must be in English with metric units throughout. Please provide full names and addresses for each author, five additional keywords not in the title, and a running title of no more than 40 characters.

The abstract, summarizing the main findings, conclusions, and significance of the work, should be concise and informative; avoid statements such as “The significance of the results is discussed.”

The introduction, usually a brief account of background and goals, is not titled. Subsequent sections bear titles, usually Methods, Results, Discussion, and References. Subheadings should be no more than 40 characters and follow IB style. Place acknowledgments between Discussion and References. Figure legends, tables, and footnotes (in that order) should follow the last page of references.

Citations and references

Complete data for all published works and theses cited, and only those cited, must be listed in References, in alphabetical order; include papers accepted for publication (Baker, in press), but not those merely submitted or in preparation. In the text, cite works in chronological order: (Smith & Jones 1991; Cook et al. 1992; Anderson 1993a,b). Cite unpublished data and manuscripts from one of the authors (Cox, unpubl. data) or other individuals (D. E. Fox, pers. comm.) with no entry in References. Consult BIOSIS for journal-title abbreviations.

Examples of References style:

Grell KG & Ruthmann A 1991. Placozoa. In: Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates, Vol.2. Placozoa, Porifera, Cnidaria, and Ctenophora. Harrison FW & Westfall JA, eds., pp. 13–27. Wiley-Liss, New York.

Klauser MD 1982. An ultrastructural and experimental study of locomotion in Trichoplax adhaerens (Placozoa). Masters thesis, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina. 49 pp.

Lowenstam HA & Weiner S 1989. On Biomineralization. Oxford University Press, New York. 324 pp.

Pearse VB 1989a. Growth and behavior of Trichoplax adhaerens: first record of the phylum Placozoa in Hawaii. Pac. Sci. 43: 117–121.

—- 1989b. Stalking the wild placozoan: biogeography and ecology of Trichoplax in the Pacific. (Abstr.) Am. Zool. 29: 175A.


Whenever practical, data should be presented in graphs rather than tables. In designing tables, figures, and multiple-figure plates, keep in mind that the final page size (print area) is 41 picas wide (nearly 175 mm or 7 inches) and 54 picas high (230 mm or 9 inches). Figures may occupy from half- to full-page width. Details of all figures (graphs, line drawings, halftones) must be large enough (≥ 1.5 mm high), to remain clear at final, published size. Include a scale bar in each figure and its value in the legend; do not use expressions of magnification.

Illustrations should be submitted as electronic files at the appropriate resolution and the size intended for publication. Color images should be submitted in CMYK color. For file format, submit line artwork (vector graphics) as Encapsulated PostScript (EPS), and halftones or photographic images (bitmap files) as Tagged Image File Format (TIFF). Minimum acceptable resolution at final, published size is 300 dpi for color figures, 500 dpi for grayscale images, and 1200 dpi for line art. For uploading large files more quickly use LZW compression, which will reduce file size without affecting quality.

If necessary, illustrations may be submitted in high-resolution, photographic hardcopy. Submissions with electronic illustrations in native file formats or of insufficient resolution will not be considered.

Authors are encouraged to submit additional, unlabeled photographs or drawings to be considered for the issue cover.

Scientific names

For all species studied, the complete scientific name with taxonomic author and date (e.g., Ostrea edulis LINNAEUS 1758) should be given either at the first mention in the text of the paper or in the Methods, but not in the title or abstract. Place taxonomic author in small caps, to distinguish from citations to reference works. Use the full binomial (Ostrea edulis) at the first mention in each section of the paper, and then abbreviate (O. edulis, not Ostrea unless referring to the genus). The Latin name of any taxon is capitalized and treated as a singular noun, not a plural or an adjective. Strictly, a taxon should not be confused with its members (the phylum Cnidaria does not bear nematocysts, but cnidarians do).

Proofs, reprints, and charges

Invertebrate Biology has no page charges for black-and-white or grayscale printing costs. Color figures will also be reproduced at no cost to the author if the color materially adds to the information conveyed by the figures, as determined in consultation with the Editor-in-Chief.

Invertebrate Biology (IB) is published in hardcopy and online at no charge to authors with the granting of an exclusive licence to Blackwell Publishing Ltd. to publish their article on behalf of the American Microscopical Society. Authors may alternatively choose to publish their article in IB on an open access basis at an additional fee of £1250/$2500.

Proofs are sent directly to the corresponding author from Blackwell Publishing. Alterations initiated in proof, special handling of figures, etc. are billed to the author. An electronic pdf version of the article is provided to the corresponding author free of charge; a hardcopy reprint order form is sent with proofs.

Instructions for authors are also available online at:

We encourage authors to support the society that publishes Invertebrate Biology, and receive the journal in which their manuscript appears, by becoming a member of the American Microscopical Society